Will exosomes NEXT WINNER HORSE?

Figure-1-Melanoma-derived-exosomes-are-messengers-for-angiogenesis-and-metastatic

Los exosomas,,en,those "surprise packet" released by tumor cells to our fluids,,es,They have become one of the potential biomarkers for diagnosis,,es,prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response of the cancer,,es,If you wonder who are,,es,I'm talking about a small extracellular vesicles that cells use as a means of communication with other cells to short,,es,medium and long distance,,es,within exosomes they have been identified molecules of different micro-RNAs,,es,which they are capable of regulating gene expression at a posttranscriptional level,,es,which falls within the scope of the extracellular RNA is functionally transferable from a donor to a recipient cell,,es, esos “paquetes sorpresa” liberados por las células tumorales a nuestros fluidos, se han convertido en uno de los potenciales biomarcadores para la diagnosis, prognosis y predicción de la respuesta terapéutica del cáncer.

Si os preguntáis que son, estoy hablando de unas pequeñas vesículas extracelulares que utilizan las células como medio de comunicación con otras células a corta, media y larga distancia. Surprisingly, dentro de los exosomas se han identificado moléculas de distintos micro-ARNs (miRNAs in English), los cuales son capaces de regular la expresión de los genes a un nivel postranscripcional, lo que entra dentro del concepto de que el ARN extracelular es funcionalmente transferible de un donante a una célula receptora.

Numerous studies and clinical trials are evaluating the use of exosomes by cancer cells such as found very high levels of these in liquid biopsies from patients with different types of cancer. In these studies it has been detected as exosomas They can play an essential role in tumors: from growth regulation,,es,angiogenesis,,es,immunomodulation,,es,the preparation of metastatic niche,,es,colonization,,es,latency and even metastatic tumor progression own,,es,I will mention one,,es,compared to samples from healthy individuals,,es,and these levels were even higher in patients with melanoma stages I-IV,,es,Although it is a breakthrough in the diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma patients,,es,overexpression of miR-221 has been observed in a variety of tumors which can not yet be considered a specific marker of melanoma,,es, la angiogénesis, la modulación inmunológica, la preparación del nicho metastásico, la colonización, la latencia e incluso la propia evolución metastásica del tumor.

As an example, voy a mencionar un study made to 94 melanoma patients. En las biopsias líquidas de pacientes que presentaban un melanoma in situ se ha detectado un elevado número de exosomas con altos niveles del microRNA-221 (miR-221) en comparación a muestras de individuos sanos, y dichos niveles eran aún más altos en pacientes con melanoma en estadios I-IV. These levels descended significantly when subjected to a surgical resection of the primary tumor and returned to increase when the tumor recurred. Aunque es un gran avance en la diagnosis y la prognosis de los pacientes de melanoma, la sobreexpresión de miR-221 se ha observado en una gran variedad de tumores por lo que aún no puede ser considerado un biomarcador específico de melanoma.

However, in the race for finding new biomarkers and specific non-invasive detection and distinction of primary tumors with risk of metastasis and predicting a therapeutic response awaited tools,,es,exosomes could be the bet on the winning horse,,es,liquid biopsy,,es,exososoma,,la,micro-RNA,,en, los exosomas podrían ser la apuesta al caballo ganador.